13 November 2019

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Sunday March 25, 2012,

At speeds even he could barely imagine, Albert Einstein's private papers and innermost thoughts will soon be available online, from a rare scribble of "E=mc2" in his own hand, to political pipe-dreams and secret love letters to his mistress.

Fifty-seven years after the Nobel Prize-winning physicist's death, the Israeli university which he helped found opened Internet access on Monday to some of the 80,000 documents Einstein bequeathed to it in his will.

It will go on adding more at alberteinstein.info and in time, the Hebrew University says, it is committed to digitizing its entire Einstein archive.

Among items likely to attract popular attention is a very rare manuscript example of the formula the author of the theory of relativity proposed in 1905, E=mc2, where energy, E, equals mass times c - the speed of light in a vacuum - squared.

Once published, a cache of two dozen love letters to the woman who would become his second wife - but written while he was still married to his first - may also attract the curious.

So too may an idealistic proposal in 1930 for a "secret council" of Jews and Arabs to bring peace to the Middle East.

At present, only a selection of documents dating from before 1923, when Einstein was 44, are available. As papers are scanned, the bulk of them in Einstein's native German, the university will publish English translations and notes, said Hanoch Gutfreund, whose committee oversees the archive.

"This is going to be not only something to satisfy the curiosity of the curious," he said. "But it also will be a great education and research tool for academics."


Some items, he acknowledged, were so personal that the archivists weighed carefully whether make them public.

Among these are 24 love letters the scientist wrote to his cousin, Elsa Einstein, with whom he conducted an affair for several years before finally divorcing his first wife, Mileva Maric, and remarrying in 1919: "If you let enough time go by," Gutfreund concluded, "Then it's kosher."

Also not yet included online, but now on display at the university, is a letter Einstein wrote in German to the Arab newspaper Falastin in which he proposed a "secret council" to help end Jewish-Arab conflict in then British-rule Palestine.

Einstein envisioned a committee of eight Jews and Arabs -- a physician, a jurist, a trade unionist and a cleric from either side -- that would meet weekly:

"Although this 'Secret Council' has no fixed authority, it will however, ultimately lead to a state in which the differences will gradually be eliminated," Einstein wrote. "This representation will rise above the politics of the day."

The scientist, who quit Nazi Germany for the United States, long supported the Jewish community in Palestine. But he had sometimes mixed feelings about the Israeli state that was established during the war of 1948. In 1952, he turned down an offer to become Israel's largely ceremonial president

Monday, March 19, 2012
Kabul (BNA) In presence of Dr. Sayed Makhdom Raheen, Minister of Information and Culture, three cooperation agreements were signed between deputy minister for youth affairs Temur Shah Ishaqzai and heads of private higher education institutions. 
The agreements were signed by Ishaqzai and head of the higher education institutions of Maiwand, Mawlana Jalaludden Mohammad Balkhi and Heywad education institute. 
Dr. Raheen told audience that the ministry exerts efforts to prepare better grounds for education of the youth with the cooperation of higher education institutions. 
On the basis of this agreement the Maiwand organization shall facilitate attraction of thousands of youth in economy, computer science with 40% discount in fees in night shift and 50% discount in day shifts while the higher education institution of Mawlana Jalaludden Mohammad Balkhi will provide the ground for education of 700 youth in education journalism and economy at $0% discount in fees and 15 youth will be give free education and the Heywad higher education will facilitate education of 2,000 youth with 50% discount in different spheres. 
So far the ground has been prepared for education of over 30,000 youth through the office of deputy minister for youth of the ministry by the private institutions. 
Ishaqzai promised that till the end of this year around 30,000 youth will find the chance at the private higher education institutions.

Thursday 15 March 2012,


LAHORE: The Encyclopedia Britannica (Encyclopaedia Britannica in Latin), globally acknowledged as one of the most scholarly of encyclopedias, has finally moved into the digital age after 244 years, the best possible news that can greet researchers and knowledge seekers all around the planet.

According to international news agency “Reuters,” the development that the Encyclopedia Britannica will no longer publish its printed editions and instead focus on its online version from now onwards, was yet another sign of the growing dominance of the digital publishing market.

Some 32 hard-bound volumes of this oldest English-language encyclopedia are written and continuously updated by about 100 full-time editors and not fewer than 4,411 expert contributors.

The very recent New York Times (March 13, 2012 edition) said,” It was first published between 1768 and 1771 in Edinburgh Scotland as three volumes. The encyclopedia grew in size, and by its fourth edition (1801–1809) it had expanded to a well known 20-volume set. Its rising stature helped recruit eminent contributors, and the 9th edition (1875–1889) and the 11th edition (1911) are landmark encyclopedias for scholarship and literary style.”

The New York Times article "After 244 Years, Encyclopedia Britannica Stops the Presses," further stated: “Beginning with the 11th edition, the Britannica shortened and simplified articles to broaden its appeal in the North American market. In 1933, the Britannica became the first encyclopedia to adopt "continuous revision", in which the encyclopedia is continually reprinted and every article updated on a schedule.

'Reuters' had more to say on this magnificent development: “The Encyclopedia Britannica, which has been in continuous print since it was first published in Edinburgh, Scotland in 1768, said Tuesday it will end publication of its printed editions and continue with digital versions available online.

The flagship, 32-volume printed edition, available every two years, was sold for $1400.

An online subscription costs around $70 per year and the company recently launched a set of apps ranging between $1.99 and $4.99 per month.

The company said it will keep selling print editions until the current stock of around 4000 sets ran out.

It is the latest move Encyclopedia Britannica has made to expand its Internet reference services and move farther into educational products. It first flirted with digital publishing in the 1970s, published a version for computers in 1981 for LexisNexis subscribers and first posted to the Internet in 1994.”

Jorge Cauz, president of Encyclopedia Britannica, Inc., had told Reuters: “The print edition became more difficult to maintain and wasn't the best physical element to deliver the quality of our database and the quality of our editorial."

He was further quoted as saying: “"Britannica was one of the first companies to really feel the full impact of technology, maybe 20 years ago, and we have been adapting to it, though it is very difficult at times.”

According to BBC’s March 27, 2007 edition and the 14th edition (dated 1954) of the Encyclopedia Britannica itself: “ The ownership has changed many times, past owners including the Scottish publisher A & C Black, Horace Everett Hooper, Sears Roebuck and William Benton. The present owner of Encyclopedia Britannica Inc. is Jacqui Safra, a Swiss billionaire and actor. Recent advances in information technology and the rise of electronic encyclopedias such as Encarta and Wikipedia have reduced the demand for print encyclopedias. To remain competitive, Encyclopedia Britannica, Inc. has stressed the reputation of the Britannica, reduced its price and production costs, and developed electronic versions on CD-ROM, DVD, and the World Wide Web. Since the early 1930s, the company has promoted spin-off reference works.”

Various Encyclopedia Britannica editions during the last half a century have stated that the Britannica was dedicated to the reigning British monarch from 1788 to 1901 and then, upon its sale to an American partnership, to the British monarch and the President of the United States. The 11th edition was dedicated to British King George the Fifth and to an ex-US President, William Howard Taft.

The 1954 version (14th edition) was dedicated to another former US President Dwight David Eisenhower and the still incumbent British Monarch, Queen Elizabeth the Second.

While the current 15th edition (2007 version) was dedicated to yet another former US President of the United States of America, George W. Bush and Queen Elizabeth II, the 2010 version of the current 15th edition (2010 version) was dedicated to the sitting American President, Barack Obama and Queen Elizabeth II.

It is pertinent to note that the peak year for the printed encyclopedia was 1990 when over 120,000 sets were sold, but this number had dropped to 40,000 in 1996.

The size of the Britannica has remained roughly constant over 70 years, with about 40 million words on half a million subjects.

Although this publication has been based in the United States since 1901, the Britannica has maintained British spelling

Wednesday, March 14, 2012
Kabul (BNA) A national trader of Panjshir has assisted nearly $ 500,000 to provincial directorate of education for Panjshir. 
According to Abdul Muqim Halimi, provincial directorate of education, the amount will be spent for capacity building of teachers in Panjshir province. 
He added it is determined that special courses of math, physics, biology, chemistry, geometry and trigonometry are to be held for students of grades 10th, 11th, and 12th in all schools of the province, saying a special entry test preparation classes are also to be held for those students who are in grade 12th. 
He said for addressing to lack of professional teachers, new professional teachers are to be hired and provided with high salaries. 
While appreciating the national trader for his assistance, provincial director of education said, “The amount will be spent in launching seminars, workshops, all learning programs, providing equipments and computer tools for schools in the province.”